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Performance and Application of Polyester

Views: 0     Author: Site Editor     Publish Time: 2022-03-16      Origin: Site

Polyester fiber is a synthetic fiber obtained by spinning. Polyester is obtained by polycondensation of an organic dibasic acid and dihydric alcohol referred to as PET fiber, which belongs to the polymer compound. Invented in 1941, it is currently the largest variety of synthetic fibers. The most significant advantage of polyester fiber is that it has good wrinkle resistance and shape retention and has high strength and elastic recovery. It is durable, wrinkle-resistant, iron-free, and non-sticky.


With organic synthesis, polymer science, and industry development, various practical PET fibers with different characteristics have been developed in recent years, such as PBT fiber and PTT fiber with high stretch elasticity, fully aromatic polyester fiber with ultra-high strength and high modulus, etc.


Polyester fibers have a series of excellent properties, such as high breaking strength and elastic modulus, moderate resilience, excellent heat setting effect, and good heat and light resistance. Polyester fibers have a melting point of around 255°C and a glass transition temperature of around 70°C, are dimensionally stable under a wide range of end-use conditions, the fabric is washable and wearable, and, in addition, has excellent resistance properties (such as resistance to organic solvents, soaps, Detergent, bleaching liquid, oxidizing agent) and good corrosion resistance, stable to weak acid, alkali, etc., so it has a wide range of uses. The rapid development of the petroleum industry has also provided more abundant and cheap raw materials for the production of polyester fibers. In addition to the development of chemical, mechanical, electronic, and automatic control technologies in recent years, the production of raw materials, fiber-forming, and processing have gradually achieved short-range Polyester fiber has become the fastest-growing and highest-yielding synthetic fiber variety. In 2010, the global output of polyester fibers reached 37.3 million tons, accounting for 74% of the world's total synthetic fibers.


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Performance


Physical Properties


①Color. Polyester is generally milky white with mercerizing. The matt product needs to be added before spinning, the matting agent TiO2 needs to be added, the pure white product needs to be added with a brightener, and the colored yarn needs to be added to the spinning melt. Add pigments or dyes.


②Surface and cross-sectional shape. Polyester has a smooth surface and a nearly circular cross-section. If a special-shaped spinneret is used, fibers with special cross-sectional shapes can be made, such as triangular, Y-shaped, hollow, and other special-shaped cross-section wires.


③Density. When Polyester is completely amorphous, the density is 1.333g/cm3. When fully crystallized, it is 1.455g/cm3. Usually, Polyester has a high degree of crystallinity, and the density is 1.38~1.40g/cm3, which is similar to wool (1.32g/cm3).


④ Moisture Regain. In the standard state, the moisture regain of Polyester is 0.4%, which is lower than that of acrylic (1%~2%) and nylon (4%). Polyester has low hygroscopicity, so its wet strength decreases less, and the fabric has good washability and wearability; however, the static electricity phenomenon is serious during processing and wearing, and the fabric has poor air permeability and hygroscopicity.


⑤ Thermal performance. The softening point T of Polyester is 230-240°C, the melting point Tm is 255-265°C, and the decomposition point T is about 300°C. Polyester can burn in fire, curl, and melt into beads, with black smoke and aroma.


⑥ lightfastness. Its light resistance is second only to acrylic. The light resistance of Polyester is related to its molecular structure. Polyester only has a strong absorption band in the 315nm light wave region, so the strength only loses 60% after 600h of sunlight exposure, similar to cotton.


⑦ electrical properties. Due to its low hygroscopicity, Polyester has poor electrical conductivity and has a dielectric constant of 3.0 to 3.8 in the range of -100 to +160 °C, making it an excellent insulator.


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Mechanical Properties


①High strength. The dry state strength is 4~7cN/dex, decreasing the wet state.


②The elongation is moderate, 20%~50%.


③The modulus is high. Among the large varieties of synthetic fibers, the initial modulus of Polyester is the highest, and its value can be as high as 14~17GPa, which makes the polyester fabric dimensionally stable, not deformed, not out of shape, and durable in pleats.


④Good resilience. Its elasticity is close to that of wool, and when stretched by 5%, it can almost fully recover after unloading. Therefore, the wrinkle resistance of polyester fabrics exceeds that of other fiber fabrics.


⑤ Wear resistance. Its abrasion resistance is second only to nylon and surpasses other synthetic fibers.


Polyester



Chemical Stability


①Acid resistance. Polyester is very stable to acids (especially organic acids), and its strength will be improved after soaking in 5% hydrochloric acid solution at 100°C for 24 hours or soaking in 70% sulfuric acid solution at 40°C for 72 hours. There is no loss, but it cannot resist the long-term action of concentrated nitric acid or concentrated sulfuric acid at room temperature.


②Alkali resistance. Because the ester group on the polyester macromolecule is easily hydrolyzed by alkali, the fiber can be destroyed by the action of concentrated alkali at room temperature and dilute alkali at high temperature. It is relatively stable to dilute alkali or weak alkali only at low temperatures.


③ solvent resistance. Polyester has strong resistance to general non-polar organic solvents, even polar organic solvents at room temperature. For example, immersion in acetone, chloroform, toluene, trichloroethylene, and carbon tetrachloride for 24h at room temperature will not reduce the fiber strength. Under heating, Polyester is soluble in phenol, xylenol, o-dichlorophenol, benzyl alcohol, nitrate benzene and phenol-carbon tetrachloride, phenol-chloroform, phenol-toluene, and other mixed solvents.


Polyester



Microbial Resistance


Polyester is resistant to microorganisms and is not affected by moths and molds. It is unnecessary to prevent moths when collecting polyester clothes, and the fabric is easier to store.


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Application


Polyester fibers have high strength, high modulus, and low water absorption and are widely used in civilian and industrial fabrics. As a textile material, polyester staple fibers can be spun pure and are especially suitable for blending with other fibers - natural fibers such as cotton, hemp, wool, and other chemical staple fibers such as viscose, acetate polypropylene Short fiber blends such as acrylic fiber. Its pure or blended cotton-like, wool-like, and linen-like fabrics generally have the original excellent characteristics of polyester fibers, such as the fabric's wrinkle resistance and pleat retention, dimensional stability, wear resistance, wash and wear. However, some of the original shortcomings of polyester fibers, such as static electricity in textile processing and difficulty in dyeing, poor sweat absorption, and air permeability, and easy melting into voids in the presence of Mars, can be mixed with hydrophilic fibers to a certain extent. are alleviated and improved. Polyester twisted filament (DT) is mainly used to weave various silk-like fabrics, interwoven with natural fibers or chemical staple fiber yarns, and interwoven with silk or other chemical fiber filaments. Series advantages.



Polyester Felt Belts Manufacturer


We use Polyester as felt belts material, mainly used in aluminum extrusion factories. Welcome to contact us anytime if you need Polyester felt belts.


Polyester Felt Belt


Foshan Calm Industrial Felt Co., Ltd.

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